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The two escorting destroyers and nine neutral Scandinavian ships were sunk off ShetlandScotland. Admiralty code breakers escofts uncovered the call s of Bremse and Brummer and by direction finding knew that they had sailed from Wilhelmshaven to Lister Tief Lister Deep north of Sylt but an operation as far north as the Scandinavian convoy collier route was not anticipated by the British naval commanders because the Admiralty failed promptly to pass on the information. Both of the British destroyer commanders were commended for their bravery, though some members of the Admiralty felt that by leaving the convoy to engage a superior enemy force, they escorst left the merchant steamers open to attack.

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The Norwegian Shipowners' Association Norges Rederiforbund would agree to The Tonnage Agreement in which the transport of coal to Norway would be assured by British charter or requisition of the Rederiforbund ships. The connivance of the Norwegian government in the arrangement would be camouflaged by being made by the Rederiforbund and the Ministry of Shipping. In anticipation of the added difficulty of escorting colliers in the autumn, winter and spring, several cruisers were sent to the Humber.

Free adult personals havelock north carolina return voyage began in Bergen in Norway, new omaha bbw escort neutral port where sailings could be observed by Germans and the use of neutral ships made it impossible for the British to keep convoy procedures and sailings secret.

Earlier inthe Admiralty anticipated that U-boats would soon return to Germany. In early October another attack was planned. A barrage of underwater mine nets were to be laid at the narrow end of the funnel. At the wide northern end, four submarines mounted a standing patrol and further south, two destroyer leaders, fourteen destroyers and a yacht patrolled between the Moray Firth and the Firth of Forth.

Four destroyers and sixteen trawlers, commanded from the yacht, HMY Goissa. The southernmost end of the funnel, where U-boats had to skirt the Dogger Bank minefields, to be patrolled by Harwich Force. To maintain the standing patrols required between 15 and 29 destroyers and flotilla leaders, with 18 destroyers from Harwich Force, beginning on 27 September. Storms interrupted the operation several times and the submarines, patrol ships and net barrage boats saw nothing of note during the operation.

The net drifters reported nine underwater explosions as the nets were being strung out.

The explosions were taken to be premature explosions of mines catching in the nets. As dark fell more explosions were heard, two green rockets escorts galleries spotted at the east end of the net line and another series explosions were heard. On 3 October, hydrophones detected a submarine at the west end of the nets, an explosion and then silence; other boats' hydrophone sets gave similar indications.

Before the U-boat was expected to reach the nets, another was seen and attacked, then a U-boat engine was heard clearly and a depth charge dropped. The weather had damaged the nets and mines and on 10 October the operation was terminated. During latethe commander of the High Seas Fleet, Hochseeflotte Admiral Reinhard Scheerdecided to augment the U-boat campaign with attacks on the Scandinavian convoys by surface ships.

Scheer anticipated that success would force the British to divert naval ships from counter-U-boat operations and create an opportunity to engage the Grand Fleet at an advantage. German bases to the south of the route made a surprise attack at the east end of the convoy route by surface ships feasible. The short days and stormy weather in the autumn and winter increased the possibility that a sortie could go buffalo prostitutes. By forcing the British to reinforce the escorts of the Scandinavian convoy, a surface ship attack could help the wider U-boat campaign.

The minelaying gear was taken off and the ships disguised to look like British C-class cruisers.

In this section, the course of British code breaking and communication between the Admiralty, Beatty and ships at sea has anticipated events for continuity. The message contained notice that the ship would sail via Norman Deep, because Way Blue had been blocked by mines, asking that minesweeping be carried out. She should be intercepted". More decodes became available to Oliver soon afterwards and should have suggested that minelaying might not be the reason for the sortie; wireless silence was unusually rigorous and a decoded message from the submarine UB described much shipping off Lerwick.

Late on 16 October, the light cruiser SMS Regensburg reported that it would be off List auf Sylt at the north end of the island of Sylt with destroyer escorts, corresponding to a al from Brummer that afternoon. als were then decrypted ordering all U-boats to refrain from attacks on light cruisers, except when certain that they were British.

Oliver had undertaken to pass on new data to ships at sea but failed to supply this, the inferences that could be drawn from them or to contact Beatty until eighteen hours later, by when the convoy had been phone sex personals fort smith arkansas. Around noon on 16 October, Mary Rose left the convoy to the next westbound convoy assembling at Bergen as Stongbow saw to the dispersal of the eastbound colliers to their destinations.

Strongbow sailed on the port side of the convoy.

The escorts had not been informed of the sailing of a German surface force, the steps taken to intercept them or that an alarm covering the North Sea had been in force for two days. After the success of the mine trap at the beginning of October and the mines laid across the Heligoland BightU-boats had begun to use the Kattegat into the Baltic Sea for outbound and return journeys. German minesweepers were constantly zwtland clearing mines with battleships in support in case of British attacks.

The British devised a plan to female escorts redding ca mines close to the German coast and river mouths while the High Seas Fleet was operating temporarily in the Baltic. While the arrangements were being made, four light cruisers, twelve destroyers and a destroyer leader were ordered to attack the German minesweepers operating in the German Bight. The Admiralty postponed the cruiser operation against German minesweepers and ordered all light cruisers and the twelve destroyers to prepare to sail to intercept a German surface ecsorts believed to be in the North Sea.

Ignorant that the Admiralty was failing to pass on information, Admiral David Beattythe commander of the Grand Fleetwas constrained to scour the North Sea. Six light cruisers and six destroyers from Rosyth were ordered to the Bovbierg Light by a. Two more light cruiser squadrons, each with five or six destroyers, were sent to patrol lines in the central Zetlnd Sea by noon on 16 October.

Soon after a. Three challenges were alled to the ships and the third challenge received escort davenport iowa erroneous reply and Brooke called the ship to action stations.

The first German salvoes at Strongbow cut the main steam pipe; many members of the crew below decks were scalded to death; Brooke was wounded and the ship was left dead in the water, with its decks covered with casualties. Other hits knocked out the wireless before the aller could raise the alarm. Mary Rose also sent a wireless al as it closed with the German ships and another station asked for the al to be repeated but Brummer jammed the al.

The German ships jammed every subsequent attempt by the British to transmit a distress call. Brooke ensured that the codebooks and confidential papers had been new escort doha then ordered the ship to be scuttled; the survivors took to the water in a Carley float at about a. The German cruisers inflicted more damage on Strongbow while Elise was manoeuvring to rescue the crew and the ship sank at about a.

Fox soon saw the German cruisers and attacked at high speed, opening fire at about a. Fox gave auburn escorts full service order "abandon ship" and housewives personals in sheep ranch ca men got away on a Carley float. With Mary Rose sunk, the Germans returned their attention to the freighters; the Germans ignored Prize rulesfiring at the merchant ships without giving batley prostitutes numbers for the crews to abandon them.

Escort sw london Danish Margrethe had stopped engines as soon as the attack began but was fired on escorts nice france boats were lowered; as the lifeboats were rowed away, astern of Margretheshells fell close by. With the ship on fire and the boilers exploding, Bremse and Brummer attacked the other ships, sinking five more. Fannonthe two British and the Belgian ships escaped; Elise returned when the coast was clear to rescue survivors, including 45 men from the crew of Strongbow.

The Admiralty thought that the German ships were still in port but postponed the Lerwick to Norway sailing due on 18 October, prompting Beatty to ask for clarification. Oliver sent a report at p. At about p. The German ships maintained wireless silence until early on 18 October, when the British code breakers decrypted an intercepted al from Brummer that the "first task had been carried out but that the second task had fallen through" and that the two cruisers were off the Lyngvig Fyr Lighthouse at Hvide Sande in north-west Denmark.

InPatrick Beesly wrote that the German attack had been well planned and efficiently carried out but that the Admiralty should have been more effective in its countermeasures. At p. Enemy has warned all submarines not to attack light cruisers unless certain they are hostile. This may indicate intention to operate on East coast or to attack Lerwick or other convoys. Beesly wrote that had Beatty received the al during the evening of 16 October, rather than after an eighteen-hour delay, he would have probably issued different orders, with more chance to protect the convoy and sink the cruisers.

Room 40 was not allowed knowledge of the positions of British ships which, with the decrypts, would have shown the peril which the Scandinavian convoys faced. The Operations Division keep a plot and received the data from Room 40; Beesly called the failure to communicate another example of "Oliver's many inexplicable failures to make proper use of the priceless intelligence at his disposal".

InPaul Halpern wrote that the Admiralty was still overly secretive of its code-breaking activities and lack of liaison between departments led to failures of interpretation of information. Room 40 discovered from its call that Brummer had sailed and assumed that it was on a minelaying sortie. Had the code-breakers been privy to this information they might have inferred German intentions. Halpern also wrote that it was remiss of the Operations Division to not consider that the German ships were out to attack a convoy and to take so long to communicate with Beatty, who, with some asperity, laid blame on the Admiralty in the aftermath.

Where is the British fleet? It can neither guard its own waters nor those of its Allies Ever since the Live babe show [Battle of Jutland], little England has been aware that she has to deal with an adversary of equal strength and therefore avoids a chivalrous battle on the sea and only wages a hunger war. In Britain, the Daily Mail blamed the government and the Admiralty for the failure, much to the disdain of at least one of the officers on the Scandinavian convoy route who called the Mail a beastly paper in his diary.

Both of the British destroyer commanders received credit for bravery, though some members of the Admiralty felt that by leaving the convoy to engage a superior enemy force, they had left the merchant steamers open to attack. Courts of enquiry were held into the losses of Strongbow and Mary Rose ; the inquiry into the loss of Strongbow found grounds for regret that the German ships were challenged three times before the captain called the crew to action escorte contrecoeur. The findings of the hearing into the loss of Mary Rose included concluded that while Fox and his crew fought bravely, by choosing to attack the German ships, Fox left the convoy without protection when he could have held off and concentrated on transmitting sighting reports.

Courts martial findings blamed Fox for not attacking with torpedoes but described his decisions as "in the highest traditions of the scotia ne housewives personals Brooke was blamed for not keeping at a distance but ruled that this was an error of judgement rather than a matter for disciplinary action. Dunn also wrote that defensive tactics were alien to the offensive culture of the Royal Navy.

Officer of the War Office Staff Col. Fawkes MC Staff officer: Capt. Bronkhorst [16] New Zealand contingent Commanded by Maj. Weir Staff officer: Capt. Sir Harry G. Hopkins [16] Canadian contingent Commanded by Col. Jackson Staff officer: Squadron-Leader A. Foster [17] Indian contingent Commanded by Gen. Sir Henry E. Wilson Staff officer: Col. Sir Walter M.

HMS Zetland Hunt II class destroyer escort

Kirke Staff officer: Maj. Singer RN Staff officer: Comm. Mitchiner TD and Col. Randall ADC and Col.

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