In Chicago, a man told police that a group of people attacked his car with baseball bats near a polling station, the New York Times reports. And in Charlotte, North Carolina, an armed man wearing a Trump hat was arrested after he reportedly intimidated people at a rally. Overall, most Americans went out to vote peacefully - and of course millions stayed home after voting early. The highest turnout in more than a century is expected. Dana Nessel, the Michigan attorney-general, said she had received reports of robocalls trying to trick people into staying home on election day.
About millions voters had cast their ballots early. Here are pictures from the election day and a night tranny escort montreal. The FBI is investigating a series of automated calls spreading female homestead escorts. Gender-based violence—defined as violence that is committed against someone based on their gender identity, gender expression or perceived gender Women and Gender Equality Canada —can have serious long-term physical, economic and emotional consequences for victims, their families, and for society more broadly.
Measuring gender-based violence is complex. The victims—and even the perpetrators—may not themselves perceive the motivations for the incident as being rooted in social structures and systems, which can serve to produce and reproduce gender inequality and gendered violence across atlanta cheap escorts dimensions.
Because of this, asking about gender-based violence directly in a survey may not lead to accurate findings or conclusions. Instead, asking about all experiences of violence and using contextual information—such as the gender of the victim and the perpetrator, the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator, and the nature and impact of the incident—allows for an examination of violence where the gender-based nature of an incident and the broader systemic factors underpinning these acts can be considered.
Using this general approach, decades of research and data collection in Canada show that women and girls are at higher risk of certain types of violence—and in many cases, other characteristics intersect with gender to impact the likelihood of experiencing violence.
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Factors such as age, race, disability, immigrant status, and sexual orientation all intersect and can impact risk and protective factors, as well as access to support services. In addition to overt acts of violence, gender-based violence also includes behaviours that can be more subtle, yet may mkre victims to feel unsafe, uncomfortable or threatened because they were victimized because kore their gender. Unwelcome comments, actions, or advances while in public—despite not meeting a criminal threshold—may cause individuals to withdraw or to not otherwise fully engage in their daily activities or access spaces in which they have the right to freely use and enjoy Bastomski and Smith These behaviours can also serve to normalize, create, or support a culture where certain individuals feel targeted and discriminated against.
InStatistics Canada conducted the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPS with the goal of eeeking knowledge of gender-based violence in Canada by collecting information on experiences and characteristics of violent victimization as well as the continuum of other unwanted experiences while in public, online, chicago escorts at work. Mayb key contribution of the SSPPS is a measure of the prevalence and nature of unwanted sexual behaviours faced by many Canadians while accessing public spaces, while online, or while in the workplace.
This fills a critical gap by measuring behaviours that have ly not been a focus of other nationally representative surveys, given the fact that they tend not to rise to the threshold of criminal behaviour, and would therefore male escort paris be reported or included in other official data sources. By also including questions which measure violence that meets the criminal threshold, such as physical and sexual assault, the SSPPS allows for a comparative analysis of the risk factors across the continuum of gender-based violence, while also providing more recent self-reported statistics on violent victimization.
These questions provide a more inclusive and accurate means of representing Canadians of all genders. Sex refers to the biological and physiological mabye that define males, females and intersex persons whereas gender refers to the morw and behaviours that society associates with being female or male Women and Gender Equality Canada Of note, this article presents data on women and men using their self-reported gender only and does not take into their sex seekijg at birth.
For example, an individual whose ased sex sdeking birth was male but who identifies as a woman is counted in this analysis longueuil escort a woman. In0. While data are available for transgender respondents, specific abingdon escorts gender-diverse respondents are not publishable due to small sample size and concerns for respondent privacy and confidentiality.
More fulsome cor of the transgender and ror diverse population is planned for release in a report forthcoming in In addition, the question on sexual orientation was revised to ask respondents if they vancouvdr heterosexual, lesbian or gay, bisexual, or to specify their sexual orientation if it was not one of the response provided. For the purposes of this report, the term sexual minority or sexual minorities is used to refer to those who stated their sexual orientation was anything other than heterosexual.
Where possible, are disaggregated to present information separately for those who are gay or lesbian, bisexual, or sexual orientation, n. Data collection and increasing knowledge is a central component of the Strategy and the SSPPS is one survey in a suite of tools being developed for the purpose of better understanding and addressing gender-based violence in Canada. from the SSPPS will assist in the escort flower mound 19 of vxncouver that will be used to track progress and monitor trends related to vacnouver elimination of gender-based violence and harassment and the promotion of security of all people in Canada.
This report presents initial findings on a wide range of behaviours, from inappropriate comments in public or online to physical and sexual assaults.
Intimate partner violence IPV is a form of gender-based violence. Although both women and men may experience IPVwomen tend to disproportionately experience the most severe forms Burczyckaare more likely to experience negative physical and emotional consequences as a result of the violence Burczyckaand comprise the majority of victims of intimate partner violence that is reported to police Burczycka b; Burczycka a.
To understand gender-based vancouveg, it is critical to also understand the nature and prevalence of IPV.
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However, in the context of this report, IPV has been excluded for two principle reasons. The breadth of these items, as well as the key addition of questions on the frequency of all types of behaviour, will facilitate analysis examining the various typologies and patterns of IPV and how they are experienced by various subpopulations milton high class escorts Canada, as well as exploring the risk factors, impacts and consequences, and prevalence of this type of violence.
Therefore, in addition to the information on criminal behaviours that is collected in the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPSan important data gap filled by the survey is a measure of behaviours that are not necessarily criminal in nature, yet still compromise feelings of safety in daily life.
The behaviours measured in the SSPPS that are broadly classified as unwanted behaviours in public are: unwanted physical contact such as touching or getting too close in a sexual manner ; indecent exposure; unwanted comments about sex or gender; unwanted comments about escorts shemale edinburgh orientation or assumed sexual orientation, and; unwanted sexual attention such as comments, whistles, gestures, or body language.
Respondents were asked to report only those instances that caused them to feel uncomfortable or unsafe. These types of behaviours are often a function of societal norms, structures, and beliefs, given that, like sexual assault, they tend to be gender-based.
Examining experiences in public spaces also acknowledges that, just as gender, age, and other characteristics intersect to influence mayeb risk of being a victim of crime or experiencing unwanted behaviours, chicago busty escorts same factors also guide how individuals perceive their own safety under certain conditions as well as how they use public spaces more generally Ceccato ; Perreault The SSPPS defined a public space as anywhere the public babalon escorts able to access with little or no restriction e.
The most common type of unwanted behaviour women experienced in public was unwanted sexual attention, such as comments, gestures, body language, whistles, or calls. More than 3.
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This was in contrast to the other types of unwanted behaviour measured by the SSPPSwhich were more common among women. However, a considerably larger proportion of women than men said that they experienced unwanted sexual attention or unwanted physical contact three or more times. On the whole, the likelihood of experiencing unwanted behaviours in public did not vary widely across the provinces.
Experiencing unwanted behaviours in a public place was more likely to occur in urban areas and major cities. This may be due in part to the nature of populated urban areas compared with rural areas, as there are not seeknig more public spaces where people may congregate, but also a higher volume and density of people. The higher prevalence of these types of behaviour may also be related to younger populations in the urban core as well as the higher degree of anonymity afforded to those living in urban centres, in contrast to rural areas where people are more likely to know one another and familiarity or interconnectedness may dissuade certain behaviours.
The prevalence of unwanted sexual behaviour in public places did not differ across most CMAs. However, not all women and men have the same likelihood of experiencing inappropriate or unwanted behaviour in public places. For women, being single or having a disability each with 1. When holding demographic characteristics constant, sexual orientation was the largest risk factor for men, where sexual minorities had odds of experiencing unwanted sexual behaviour in public mayne four times higher than heterosexual men.
Age also continued to have an impact even when controlling for other variables, with the odds about fuck buddy kansas pa free as high among mlae 15 to 24 or 25 to 34 when compared to those 35 or older. Having a disability had a similar impact to that of age on the odds of experiencing unwanted sexual behaviour in public among men. While it did not emerge as a ificant most prostitute city in north bay on its own for women, Indigenous identity increased the odds of experiencing unwanted sexual behaviour in public among men by 1.
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Most Canadians who were targeted by unwanted sexual behaviour said that one person was responsible for the most serious instance Note. Given the nature of many public places and, as mentioned, the higher prevalence reported by those living in higher-density areas in urban centres, the person responsible was most commonly ladies seeking nsa leesburg florida 34748 stranger.
These reactions can hinder movement and further infringe on the ability to fully engage in society and access public spaces, particularly for women since they are more likely to be the targets of these behaviours Bastomski and Smith As a result of the most serious instance, women were more likely than men to avoid certain places, change their self-presentation in public i. While not necessarily resulting in behavioural changes, experiences of unwanted sexual behaviours typically had a negative emotional impact on those who experienced them.
Most often, these experiences caused feelings of annoyance, increased cautiousness and awareness, anger, and confusion or frustration. These impacts can serve to limit the ways in which women interact or engage with society and access or use public spaces.
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While online spaces can be public i. Given that much of daily life now takes place online, understanding certain online behaviours and how they impact Canadians of all genders is important. On the whole, being a sexual minority resulted in 1. As with unwanted behaviours in public places, sexual orientation was the most noteworthy risk factor among adelaide love escort when it came to online harassment as well.
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When holding other demographic characteristics constant, being a sexual minority increased the odds of online harassment by 2. Having a disability 1. A large proportion of those who experienced unwanted behaviours online had little knowledge of who the perpetrator or perpetrators were. The fact that women were more likely than men vacouver know who was responsible for their experiences online suggests that the nature of these behaviours may be different between women and men.
Similar to what kale seen with unwanted sexual behaviour in public, women were more vancuover than men to have experienced a negative emotional impact as a result of the most serious instance of unwanted behaviour experienced online. Beyond public places ts escort indianapolis bridge online, the maye is also a setting in which unwanted or inappropriate sexual behaviours can occur.
Using a subset of questions adapted from the Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces, the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPS asked respondents about witnessing and experiencing certain behaviours in the vancouveg or in a work-related setting, such as a work-sanctioned event, party, or training exercise.
A survey specifically dedicated to measuring sexual misconduct in workplace-related settings is currently in development, with collection planned for More than lady seeking nsa childs of all individuals who were employed in the year preceding the survey stated that they witnessed at least one instance of inappropriate sexual behaviour in the workplace.
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Furthermore, the prevalence of experiencing inappropriate sexual behaviour in the workplace was highest among women who stated that they worked in a male-dominated environment i. While witnessing or experiencing unwanted sexual behaviour was asked specifically in the context of the workplace, those who were physically or sexually assaulted in any setting were asked details about the most serious incident, including whether or not it occurred at their place of work.
Self-reported surveys provide an important complement to official police-reported data on crime, since the majority of criminal incidents never come to the attention of police.
The GSS has gone through several cycles sincemaking important additions over the years, including, adapting questions cambridge ont escorts spousal violence and criminal harassment from the Violence Against Women Survey. In the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces, the following five questions are used to measure physical assault and sexual assault:.
Approximately 4. The prevalence among men was notably smaller, with 1.
Looking at experiences of violent victimization since the age of 15 at the provincial level can provide important information as to the potential needs of residents, though it should be acknowledged that the victimization experienced may vancuver have happened in their province of residence. On the whole, the likelihood of being a victim of physical or sexual assault did not vary greatly between the provinces. Certain adult escort east pensacola heights of people—including lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, people with disabilities, and young people—are at an increased risk of victimization Conroy and Cotter ; Perreault ; Simpson A sexual orientation other than heterosexual was also vabcouver with higher levels of lifetime victimization.
Certain life experiences such as a history of homelessness or childhood victimization and behaviours e. It is important to note that causation cannot be determined from this analysis because the binge drinking or marijuana use did not necessarily precede the violent victimization. In other words, it is also possible that the binge drinking followed the victimization. Inapproximately 1.
While there is no gender difference in the prevalence of overall violent victimization, there are notable differences in the nature of it. For both women and men, the most common form birmingham 24 hour escorts sexual assault experienced was unwanted sexual touching. These are consistent with other self-reported data Perreault and official police-reported statistics Conroy which demonstrate the gendered nature of both physical and sexual assault outside of the context of intimate partner relationships; men are more likely to experience physical assault and women are more likely to experience sexual assault.
There were, however, a few exceptions: a smaller proportion of women in Newfoundland and Labrador 2. Women 2. However, women in Newfoundland and Labrador 1. Given that several sociodemographic characteristics are associated with higher rates of victimization, the risk of being a victim seekng a violent crime is not the vaancouver for everyone Conroy and Cotter ; Perreault ; Rotenberg ; Simpson For example, regardless of gender, being young has been identified as a ificant risk factor for victimization.
This is possibly related to the lifestyle characteristics of young adults, such as binge drinking and staying out late after dark Conroy and Cotter ; Perreault However, this does not capture experiences of violence within intimate relationships, where trends may differ. Research has shown that rates of violent victimization among individuals who self-identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual are ificantly higher than those of their heterosexual counterparts Beauchamp ; Conroy and Cotter ; Perreault ; Simpson However, escort service vb controlling for other factors, being lesbian, gay or bisexual mxybe not ificantly increase the risk of sexual assault see Text table 1.
On the other hand, being an immigrant appears to be fuck sweeden woman swinger personal ads with a lower risk of violent victimization. These findings represent another way in which gender influences violence. Perpetrators are generally male, something which is also reflected in official police-reported statistics where about four in five persons accused of violent crime are men Conroy Thus, men are more often both the victims and the perpetrators of violent crimes outside of the context of intimate relationships, with the notable exception of sexual crimes where women are most often victims.
Both self-reported and police-reported data indicate that sexual assault victims usually know their perpetrator Conroy and Cotter sseeking Rotenberg There were two principal sources of the blame felt by women who were sexually assaulted. Research has suggested that certain preconceived notions about sexual victimization can be harmful to victims when their lived experiences do not match what an average person would define as a sexual assault.
For example, a common myth about sexual assault is that most incidents are committed by a stranger Johnsondespite the fact that various sources of data show that the perpetrator is most commonly known to the victims. Victims whose sexual assaults do not meet this criterion may be less likely to report their experiences, whether to the police or to others, and if they do share, they may feel less likely to be believed or more likely to experience mayge and secondary victimization as mentioned above Johnson Other self-reported data has shown that about two-thirds of sexual assaults are not reported to police because the victim believed it was minor and not worth taking the time to report, it was a private or personal matter and it was handled informally, or because no one was harmed during the incident Conroy and Cotter These were also commonly flr reasons for not reporting physical assaults.
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However, even those who have positive interactions with the police may describe other negative experiences with the criminal justice system that can deter reporting, such as lengthy court processes or unmet expectations about the outcomes of reporting Johnson Men who were physically assaulted and spoke to police perceived their interactions similarly to women who were victimized. These findings can be used by victim services to private escorts in adelaide appropriate care Tyson In terms of emotional consequences, on the whole sexual assault impacts women more than men.
Some victims change their day-to-day behaviour or take extra precautions in an attempt to lower their risk of being victimized again Perreault