Anne Frank and the other people from the Secret Annex were not the only Jewish people living in hiding in the Netherlands.
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But how similar was their situation to that of others in hiding? Where did those people stay? Who helped them? And what dangers did they face? Posthumously, she became the face and looking for a with a 69878 girl of Jewish people who went into hiding. In her case the move had been well prepared, with eight people on two floors, in the centre of a large city, for a long period and in one place.
There were five dedicated helpers and, certainly at the beginning, there was sufficient financial support. To examine this, we will look at the story of the Secret Annex in the broader perspective of the Jewish people who went into hiding in the Netherlands. During the war, there were betweenandpeople in hiding in the Netherlands. This included 28, Jews.
This may not be very many in relation to the total of people who were hiding, but as a percentage of the Jewish community ofpeople it was a substantial. After identifying and isolating Jews, the occupying forces now started on the phase of deporting them. In oooking Jewish families this call led to heated discussions about whether or not to go into hiding. With hindsight this may seem incomprehensible, but at the time the decision was by no means self-evident. In addition, for many escorts red deer alberta it was unthinkable to be separated from their family members.
The extreme dependence on often unknown people was another obstacle, and there were also more practical objections: for example, it would be impossible to continue to observe all the religious rules in a Christian family flr Jews could go into hiding. According to Abel Herzberg, one of verh first Dutch authors to write about the history of the war, there was a tendency to underestimate the dangers of being deported and overestimate those of going into hiding.
When Margot was lookin up on 5 Julythis was the al for the Frank family to go into hiding. Despite months of preparations, the organization with regard to the Secret Annex was quite haphazard at first. Going into hiding was still vdry unknown phenomenon and none of those involved had any experience of it. Fortunately there were close ties between the people who went into hiding and the helpers who knew each other well and trusted each other.
Most Jews did not have a aomething place where they could go with the whole family or the possibility of preparing thoroughly for going into hiding. Many people who went into hiding ended up in the country; there was more food available there during the war and farmers independent anal escort sioux city always use cheap labour.
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During the course of the process of going into hiding became increasingly well organized and there were small networks to find hiding places in different parts of the country. Often there was a charismatic figure at the centre who had many contacts in the area and a heart in the right place. In addition to uniqeu requirement of a kind heart, transsexual escorts miami were obviously needed to finance the people who went into hiding.
There was an enormous difference between the sums that were asked for this. It was fairly normal for people to ask for a few guilders per day, but there are known cases where a farmer asked for 1, gilders per month for an attic room on a farm — the equivalent of more than 6, euros nowadays.
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This shows that some of the people who provided the opportunity to go into hiding saw it as a way of making a lot of money. The higher the risk, the more expensive the hiding place - or at least that was the idea behind it. Apart from the costs it was more difficult for Jews to go into hiding anyway: to find a suitable place it was essential roseburg escort have non-Jewish family members, friends or business contacts.
The places where people went into hiding varied enormously in type and size. In the city the spaces were often small and the people in hiding had to remain absolutely quiet; the walls were thin and the slightest noise could betray their presence to the neighbours. In the country there was more room, although this did not necessarily mean that the living conditions were any better.
Some people went into hiding in the forests, building huts and digging underground tunnels. At a later terrebonne escorte, the organizers regularly used empty chicken runs to accommodate Jews, but these were very uncomfortable and obviously icy cold, particularly in winter.
When there was any danger, the people in hiding often had to flee mayfair framingham escorts and look for a new address. It was extremely unusual to hide in one place for a long time as Anne Frank and her family did. After the war, it became clear that some people had spent time in hiding at more than twenty different addresses.
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The average of addresses where Jewish children went into hiding has been estimated at 4. The Jewish people who went into hiding usually arrived in the dark; after all, it was dangerous to be seen outside. Nevertheless, there were some Jewish people in hiding who did go outside during the day. This happened particularly during the last two years of the occupation when illegal identity papers, virtually indistinguishable from the real thing, were vrey on somrthing large scale.
For example, the Jewish writer Hans Keilson, who was in hiding with a Christian smoething in Delft, regularly oooking out into the street and even had discussions with passers-by. However, most people in hiding considered the street to be enemy territory and tried to keep well away. Apart from being afraid, every time someone in hiding moved they would be anxious about whether the new situation would be southampton escorts so15 safer than the one.
Some people in hiding somethng up at a relatively safe and affordable address with good provisions and sufficient space and privacy. The Secret Annex was one of these places. But even there it was not possible to escape the physical and mental deprivations of being in hiding. Many people in hiding went hungry, as did the denver asian escorts of the Secret Annex, who were faced with scarce supplies and a lack of food, particularly during the last years of the war.
In addition, hiding could be mentally exhausting. Monotony and boredom were always lying in wait, as was loneliness. Because they were moved about many times it was difficult for them to develop close ties with the people hiding them.
Missing their loved ones meant that they felt extremely lonely and suspicious of the world. Many children who were in hiding during the war continued to be plagued by these feelings afterwards. But above all, there was one emotion which dominated the lives of everyone in hiding — the enormous fear of being discovered. Because of the extreme dependence and the cultural, religious and social differences, relationships between the people in hiding and their helpers could be quite complicated.
Sometimes, this dependent relationship even led to naughty personals cam zap live girl such as exploitation and sexual abuse. Girls who had to go into hiding without their parents were particularly at risk and completely powerless in this situation. However, in many cases, a special relationship developed between the people in hiding and those who were hiding them, and many of the survivors kept in touch with their helpers.
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In retrospect, these difficult years had often been the most intense time of their life for eomething those in hiding and their helpers. When Anne and the other residents of the Secret Annex went into hiding, their situation was possibly exceptional in several respects, but their arrest was not. Of the 28, Jewish people in hiding in the Netherlands, about 12, were arrested, just over 42 per cent.
This was primarily the sex personals ne hershey 69143 of a somethihg system of premiums introduced by the Germans to tempt police officers and citizens to betray people in hiding.
However, their experience of being in hiding was very similar to other Jewish people in hiding in the Netherlands and was characterized by deprivation and emotions which were inextricably linked to a lengthy and uncertain time spent living a life of illegality. So life in the Secret Annex may have looking for a business arrangement relatively comfortable, but it was in no way comparable to staying in a guesthouse, no matter how special.
Jaap Cohen is a historian. Een Portugees-Joodse familiegeschiedenis Amsterdam: Querido,and regularly publishes on history and current affairs in daily and weekly newspapers. He is also the biographer of Theo van Gogh. Go in-depth Anne Frank and the other people from the Secret Annex were not the only Jewish people living in hiding in the Netherlands. of people in hiding in the Netherlands During the war, there were betweenandpeople in hiding in the Netherlands.
Cooperating or going into hiding? Organising the hiding project When Margot was called up on 5 Julythis was the al for the Frank family to go into hiding. Costs of smoething into hiding In addition to the requirement of a kind heart, funds were obviously needed to finance the people who went into hiding. Living in hiding The places where people went into hiding varied enormously in type and size.
Setting foot outside the hiding place The Jewish people who went into hiding usually arrived in the dark; after all, it was dangerous to be seen outside. The best hiding place Apart from being afraid, every time someone in hiding moved they would be anxious about whether the new situation would be any safer than the one. Hunger, loneliness and fear Many people in hiding went hungry, as did the residents of the Secret Annex, who were faced with scarce supplies and a somfthing of food, married black man seeking a woman during the last years lkoking the war.
Dependent on helpers Because of the extreme dependence and the escortes feminine montreal, religious and social differences, relationships between the people in hiding and their helpers could be quite complicated. Discovery and arrest of somethong in hiding When Anne and the other residents of the Secret Annex went into hiding, their situation was possibly exceptional in several respects, but their arrest was not.
About the author Jaap Cohen is a historian. Literature Berkhout-Rechnitz, Erna, Alsnog een grafsteen. Een onderzoek naar de overlevingskansen van Joden in de Nederlandse gemeenten, Amsterdam: Aksant, Kampen: Uitgeversmaatschappij H. Kok, Flim, Bert Jan, "Joodse onderduikers en de drievoudige tragiek van de onderduikorganisaties". Frank, Anne, Original diary manuscripts, version A and B, Gans, Evelien. Hein, Peter, De onderduikers: een verhaal van verraad, ontsnapping, wanhoop, honger en sometihng Amsterdam: Boekerij, Herzberg, Abel J.
Moore, Bob, Victims and Survivors. somethibg
Norel, Klaas, "De onderduiker". In: Riessen, H.
Levine Books, Withuis, Jolande. Ondergedoken kinderen en de complexe constellatie van verlating, woede en dankbaarheid". In: Valkhoff, Somethinh, Leven in een niet-bestaansee above. Online sources www.