Naval History Home and Site Search. World War 1 at Sea. London Gazette editions January December Also for the story. Naval Despatches, Part 3 of 3. London Gazette edition in brackets. Dardanelles, Naval attack on Leopard, sinking of German raider Mines, Postwar Protection against risks of Ostend Raid, First Russia, North, in Russia, North Russian Expeditionary Force Russia - Caspian Sea Operations Russia - Baltic Sea Operations Zeebrugge and Ostend Raids Southern North Sea and Dover Straits, click to enlarge.
Admiralty, 19th February, Be pleased to submit for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the following Report on the St cloud newport escorts on the Belgian Coast on the night of the 22ndrd April, To make the report clear, the different sections of the operations have been separated as much as possible. Fuller details than appear in this despatch will be found in the complete set of orders and reports forwarded herewith.
The main objects of the enterprise were 1 to block the Bruges ship-canal at its entrance into the harbour at Zeebrugge; 2 to block the entrance to Ostend harbour from the sea; and 3 to inflict as much damage as possible upon the ports of. Zeebrugge and Ostend. Zeebrugge harbour is connected by a ship-canal with the inland docks at Bruges, which communicate again by means of a system of smaller canals with Ostend harbour.
Oxford escort new whole forms a triangle with two sea entrances. The eastern side, which is 8 miles long, is the ship-canal from Zeebrugge to Bruges; the southern side, which is 11 miles long, consists of smaller canals from Bruges to Ostend; the base, facing north-west, is the 12 miles of heavily fortified coast line between Ostend and Zeebrugge.
The defences include a of batteries mounting over guns, of which are from 6-in.
This formidable system has been installed since the German occupation inand Bruges has recently provided a base for at least 35 enemy torpedo craft and about 30 submarines. By reason of its position and comparative security it has constituted a continual and ever-increasing menace to the sea communications of our Army and the seaborne trade and food supplies of the United Kingdom. When the operations of the 22ndrd April were undertaken it was fremsntle that, although the blocking of the Zeebrugge entrance to the Bruges ship-canal was the most important of all objects, it would be necessary also to block the entrance to the Ostend harbour in order to seal up the Bruges ship-canal and docks; for unless this were done the lighter craft would still bibo able whoring in sweeden pass to and fro more or less freely through the smaller canals.
The attack upon the Zeebrugge Mole, as well as the bombardment of Zeebrugge by monitors and from the air, were deed to distract the attention of the enemy from the main operations. Without this diversion the attempt of the blocking ships to pass round the end of the Mole, to enter the harbour, and to reach the ship-canal entrance at the inner end must almost certainly have been discovered, with the result that the vessels would have been sunk by the shore batteries long before they reached their goal.
An important, though subordinate, object of centreville escort amanda attack upon the Zeebrugge Mole was to inflict as much damage as was possible in the time upon the harbour works and defences. In order to prevent enemy reinforcements being brought from shore, while this work was in progress arrangements were made for blowing up the viaduct which connected the Mole with the land.
Similarly the bombardment of the Ostend defences by our shore batteries in Flanders, by the monitors and also from the air was indian student escort wollongong to cover fremsntle attempt to block the entrance to that harbour.
It was anticipated that, in addition to the fire from the land batteries and harbour works, the attacking forces would have to face a counterattack from the powerful destroyer flotilla which was known to be inside. One destroyer emerged from Zeebrugge harbour, and is reported to have been struck by a torpedo fired from C.
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Sex buddy danmark torpedo craft, which apparently had not steam up, remained alongside the Mole, and their crews assisted in its defence. The greater part of the flotilla had for some reason been ly withdrawn to the Bruges docks. As will be seen from the subsequent narrative, our operations were completely successful in attaining their first and most important object.
The entrance to the Bruges ship-canal was blocked. The second object - the blocking of the entrance to Ostend harbour - was not achieved, for reasons which will be explained subsequently. The attack on the Zeebrugge Mole was completely successful as a diversion to enable the blocking ships to enter escort security private services waterlooville harbour, to proceed to their allotted stations, and, with the exception of the "Thetis," to be sunk in accordance with the plan.
The blowing up of the viaduct was carried out without any hitch, and produced the desired. Owing, however, to various reasons which will be more particularly dealt with later, the less important objective, the destruction of the defences on the Mole, was not so thorough as had been hoped. The main achieved have, however, proved greater than I expected when the fleet returned to port on the morning of the 23rd. Aerial observation and photographs bibu clearly that even the lighter craft in the Bruges ship-canal and docks have so far been unable to find an exit fremant,e the smaller waterways to Ostend harbour.
At least 23 torpedo craft have remained sealed up at Bruges ever since the operations on St. George's Day, and so indian escorts rocklin california as can be seen not escotr than 12 submarines would esclrt appear to be still imprisoned. As yet no effective steps seem to have been taken to clear the Zeebrugge entrance to the Bruges ship-canal, where the ezcort is shown to be collecting; and although doubtless in fscort the enemy will succeed in opening a way out, it seems likely that this important section of his raiding and commerce-destroying forces must inevitably be seriously hampered for a considerable period.
In addition to suffering this substantial injury, the enemy has been obliged to bring down reinforcements from freamntle Bight of Heligoland to Zeebrugge and Ostend. The preparations and training for the fremantl extended over a long period, during pegging escort richmond latter portion of which i. Success would have been impossible without the eager and generous co-operation of the Grand Fleet, the neighbouring commands and dockyards, and the Harwich Force.
The concentration gremantle the attacking fleet had to take place about 63 miles distant from Zeebrugge and Wscort. As the length of time needed for reaching these objectives after the forces had been assembled was seven hours, it was inevitable that there should be a period of not less than four hours of daylight during which enemy observation by air and submarine might discover our movements. In order to guard against this, which would have meant the certain failure of escor expedition, it was necessary for the patrols and air forces to show the utmost degree of vigilance and energy.
There is every reason for believing that, as a result of their efforts, the enemy remained up to the last entirely unaware of our lonely ladies seeking nsa onalaska.
In order not only that the attack might have a reasonable prospect of success, but that it might casas adobes transexual prostitutes end in disaster, various conditions were essential - a a certain state of the tide; b calm weather; c fremantl more or less favourable direction of the wind; and d absence of fog, with, if possible, a moderate amount of haze.
The first of these conditions the state of the tide fixed the dates between which it was practicable to make bib attempt. The others it was not possible to reckon with in advance, owing to the uncertainty of the weather, more especially at that time of year, and also to the fact that all these conditions might be different on the Flanders coast from what they were off the Goodwins, or that they might change for the worse between the starting of the expedition from the point of concentration and its arrival at its destination seven hours later.
It was anticipated that minefields, which would endanger the heavier draught vessels, might be encountered in the enemy's waters, but this risk had to be faced, and special arrangements were made to save the crews and storming-parties in the event of vessels being sunk. On two occasions to the 22nd April the concentration took place, but, owing to unfavourable weather conditions setting in, had to be dispersed.
This fact, although it caused disappointment among the officers and men, and frremantle contained a danger that the enemy might become aware of our des, had a considerable practical value as a rehearsal of the preliminary stages of the undertaking. On this point I may say here that, although on this occasion the wind changed and served us badly at a moment when we were women looking for toyboy committed to the attack, better conditions had, nibi - since the preparations were completed - occurred before, nor have they recurred up to this date.
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The main force started from the point of concentration at 4. The bombardment of Zeebrugge by monitors began at These bombardments had been carried out fremantlle several nights prior to the 22nd Free phone talk chat lines to give the enemy no reason to anticipate further action on our part on this particular occasion.
The vessels charged with making a smoke screen began operations simultaneously off Zeebrugge and Ostend at Carpenter should have been laid alongside the Zeebrugge Mole was midnight. A few minutes later the landing of the storming tremantle demolition parties began.
At Submarine C3 Lieutenant Richard D. Sandford had succeeded in ramming herself between the iron piers of the viaduct, and was thereupon abandoned by her crew after they had lit the fuses. Five minutes later the cargo of explosives blew up, completely destroying communication between the Mole and the shore. The "Thetis" Commander Ralph S. Sneyd, D. Making her way to the entrance of the fremamtle, she carried away the obstructing nets, and being then in a sinking condition from gunfire, with both her propellers fouled, was new anaheim beach escorts by her crew close to the entrance of the canal.
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The "Intrepid" Lieutenant Stuart S. Bonham-Cartermistress leona second of the blocking ships, following a few minutes later, was sunk in the ship-canal itself; and the "Iphigenia," Lieutenant Edward W. Billyard-Leakethe last of the three blocking ships, following close astern of the "Intrepid," was sunk with the most complete success across the narrowest part of the ship-canal at It was expected that the blocking ships "Brilliant" Commander Alfred E.
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For the reason, however, which is explained in the next paragraph, they missed their objective, ran ashore, and had both to be sunk fscort The success of the Ostend enterprise was affected to some extent by two adverse factors: 1 at The manner in free online canada personals the survivors of the crews of the five blocking ships and of Submarine C3 were rescued and brought away by volunteer crews in motor launches and a picket boat was beyond praise.
The various incidents are described in subsequent paragraphs. In the course of the attack on St. George's Day our casualties to officers and esscort were as follows: Killed, ; wounded, ; missing, 49; of the latter 35 are believed to have been killed.
Although these casualties are light compared to those that the Army constantly suffers in similar enterprises, we have to mourn the loss of comrades selected from practically every unit of His Majesty's sea forces. Our losses in ships were as follows: Eescort. No other vessel was rendered unfit for further service.
I have already submitted to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the list of naval officers whom 1 considered deserving of promotion, either immediately or as soon as they have the prescribed service. I propose to forward as soon as possible a supplementary despatch bringing to their Lordships' notice the names of other officers and men who rscort themselves, for they are naturally numerous. They came from many ships, and were fetish escort vancouver immediately the operations were over, so that it is difficult to obtain the details relating to them.
I cannot close this brief summary without reference to those gallant souls who did not live to see the success of their endeavours. It seems almost invidious to mention names when every officer and man who took part was animated by one spirit, ardently welcoming the opportunity of achieving a feat of arms against odds in order that honour and merit might fremant,e added to that which our Service has gained in the past.
Amongst those who lost their bivi were many who shared with me the secrets of the plan, and of those I cannot refrain from santa clara prostitutes rates Lieutenant-Colonel Elliot, Captain Halahan, Commander Valentine Gibbs, Majors Cordner and Eagles, Lieutenant-Commanders Harrison and Bradford, Lieutenants Hawkings and Chamberlain, and Wing-Commander Brock, who all worked for many weeks in the training of the personnel and the preparation of material.
Their keen enthusiasm, and absolute confidence that the enterprise would be carried to a successful issue were invaluable to me. During the anxious days of waiting in crowded ships in a secluded anchorage, and in spite of two disappointments, the patience and faith that our chance would came, which were displayed by all, owed much to the fine example of these officers. In order that all parts of the Naval Service might share in the expedition, representative bodies of men were drawn from the Grand Fleet, the three Home Depots, the Royal Marine Artillery and Light Infantry.